Friday, May 15, 2020

Ernest Hemmingway A Spectacular And Complex Author That...

Ernest Hemmingway Ernest Hemmingway was a spectacular and complex author that changed the world of American literature through his words. Hemmingway became an American novelist, journalist, and short story writer that published most of his work between the 1920’s and 1950’s. Hemmingway had a major impact on the world of writing, and a strong influence on 20th century literature during his lifetime. Hemmingway’s life was full of adventures from around the globe, and these experiences inspired his works of literature. The writing style Hemmingway used was simple and direct, but it makes any reader feel like they are apart of the story. This man made his mark on American Literature, and he will be remembered as one of the most well known authors to have ever lived. Hemmingway’s writing style was unique and brilliant because it was original and straightforward. The words in his literature were inspired by many experiences like the time he served in three different wars, and restlessly traveling the globe over the course of his life, â€Å"Ernest was forty-nine when I met him. He had been married four times, been under fire in three wars, and had restlessly roamed the world-tramping through the northern Michigan woods, fishing for marlin in the Caribbean, hunting for big game in Africa, following the bulls in Spain. He had incorporated these experiences into short stories such as novels as The Sun Also Rises (1926) and A Farwell to Arms (1929), which had brought to American

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

John Locke s Views On Private Property And Politics

Each Philosopher in the early modern world has different perspectives regarding private property and politics in society. Although John Locke, Niccolo Machiavelli, and Karl Marx/Frederick Engels are from different times their criticism are crucial onto the world. Being from different eras gives them a unique perspective of how one should rule or govern. Each philosopher displays his own ideas and can seemingly disagree with one another in their methods of government. Therefore when issues of malicious rulers, private property, and politics arise, each philosopher handles these situations differently in which they criticize their method to what they believe is the right way. Locke s views in the social environment would criticize†¦show more content†¦Machiavelli did not view all men equal. He believed that some men were a better fit to be rulers than others. Machiavelli felt this because of the corrupt government that was taken in action at that time so he knew that the government needed a ruler who can ensure stability and can properly manage it. These are the characteristics that the Prince had in Machiavelli’s book. An example from the book can be seen as the Judeo-Christian values as faulty in the state s success. Such visionary expectations, he held, bring the state to ruin, for we do not live in the world of the ought, the fanciful utopia, but in the world of is.(Machiavelli) The role of The Prince was not to gain integrity or virtue, but to guarantee security within the government. John Locke has a dissimilar opinion than Machiavelli. He is basically against Machiavelli because he believes that â€Å"an authoritarian government is unlawful and unjust to society.†(Locke) John Locke believes that† all men are created equal, have the right to own property and are naturally moral and rational.† Locke believed in a natural right to life, liberty, and property; â€Å"inherent rights to freedom and self-governance that no one can take away from people.† (Locke) He thinks that people should govern themselves and be accountable for their actions. Locke describes â€Å"political power as the right to make the laws for theShow MoreRelatedThe Second Treatise Of Government By John Locke1593 Words   |  7 Pagespublication The Second Treatise of Government, John Locke was the first to promote individualism over society. Though his ideas were considered as liberal, now are embraced by many conservative. John Locke’s ideas are the basis of the American government and so it is important to keep America s nature; the rights of life, liberty to own property, and the pursuit of happiness; at heart when creating laws. In Locke’s second treatise of government, John Locke described that to understand the rights ofRead MoreJohn Locke And John Stuart Mill1451 Words   |  6 PagesDid the arguments of classical liberals, such as John Locke and John Stuart Mill, serve to legitimate European imperialism and the dispossession of indigenous peoples? John Locke has been informally known as the grandfather of liberalism. Similarly, John Stuart Mill is regarded as one of the early pioneers of the philosophy of liberalism (Armitage, n.d.). However, both of these liberalists have also been known to openly support the concept of empiricism. While no fool can tell that empiricism andRead MoreProperty Of The American Political Thought1382 Words   |  6 PagesProperty in the American Political Thought The concept of property has long been one of the most crucial aspects for the U.S. citizens, as it is a major part of the Constitutional, and, therefore, human rights. Although the perception and understanding of â€Å"property† have been considerably changed, especially in terms of political and philosophical vision, it still has a particular meaning for the Americans. In general, the idea of property is the question of the political thought and conceptualizedRead MoreThe Relationship Between Locke And Rousseau On Human Nature2003 Words   |  9 PagesINTRODUCTION This essay is aimed at discussing how human nature in Hobbes, Locke, and Rousseau impact the way that the role and function of the state is viewed. Human Nature is referred to as the essential and immutable character of all human beings. Others may refer to it as the biological or genetic factor suggesting that there is an established and unchanging human core. It highlights what is innate and natural about human life, as opposed to what human beings have gained from education or throughRead MoreJohn Locke s Theory Of Religious Tolerance884 Words   |  4 PagesJohn Locke, a 17th century English philosopher is remembered for his great contributions to three issues that was important during his time and still concerns us today. The three topics Locke covered during his lifetime was how to handle people with different religion, determining who should rule, and how to educate our children. Locke developed theories from the three topics because they played a central role in his life. 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He insists that each individual has a right to living on this planet the way he or she chooses. John Locke is known to have boosted the central groundwork for the development of Liberalism. He was known for two famous pieces of work. In one of his pieces, A Letter Concerning Toleration, he focused on the right to expressRead MoreClassical Liberalism Is A Political Philosophy Originated1594 Words   |  7 Pages this ideology was commonly known as Liberalism, however, it’s now important to classify it as â€Å"Classical Liberalism† mostly in English-speaking countries. Worldwide however, Liberalism is a wide-ranging term that can also be associated with private property and designated with social, instead of social, economic, and political as it’s known to be understood as in the United States. During the Middle Ages, however, there was not a distinction between the church and the state. This brought conflictRead MoreJohn Locke : An Ideal State2015 Words   |  9 Pageswould be an ideal state for anyone John Locke is one of the many important authors of such theories and I find his reasoning compelling. He believes that if the people give their individual power to enforce the laws of nature to a political society they can result in a form of government being created. Through private property and reason, a person is to obtain liberty. Jean-Jacques Rousseau is another philosopher whose perspective seems to be in agreement with Locke in terms of exploring political foundationsRead MoreHobbes, Locke, And Rousseau s Theory Of Government3619 Words   |  15 Pages Hobbes, Locke, and Rousseau: Who Has the Most Scripturally Correct Theory of Government? Katherine Shoemaker GOVT 302-B01 Professor Stephen Witham Liberty University â€Æ' Outline I. John Locke, Thomas Hobbes, and Jean-Jacques Rousseau are the three philosophers that have the most developed view of human nature as it applies to government. a. Each of these philosophers has a literary work or works that look at human nature and its application to government. b. We will be examining Locke’s Second

Tuesday, May 5, 2020

The Five People You Meet in Heaven the Impact of Relationships on the Individual free essay sample

The Five People You Meet in Heaven by Mitch Albom follows a man’s journey through heaven after dying at the age of 83 in a horrific theme park accident. The novel proposes that when one dies, one meets with the five people that most influenced, affected, or defined one, before moving on. The story is told partly through Eddie’s interactions with his five people and also through vivid snapshots of his life, both of which allow the reader to see changes in his character and the development of his identity as he journeys through life. The changes in Eddie’s character before and after his death and the musings the author instills in the reader exemplify the theme that what defines an individual the most are the people around them and their relationships with them. The novel begins at the end, right before Eddie dies in the accident. It is here the reader gets the first view of Eddie as an old man, weary of the world: â€Å"His plans never worked out. We will write a custom essay sample on The Five People You Meet in Heaven: the Impact of Relationships on the Individual or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page In time, he found himself graying and wearing looser pants and in a state of weary acceptance, that this was who he was and who he always would be, a man with sand in his shoes in a world of mechanical laughter and grilled frankfurters† (Albom 5). This initial introduction to Eddie delivers the reader with a vivid description of his weariness and resignation. Throughout this same first chapter, the author also interjects small stories of Eddies past, no more than a paragraph each: â€Å"Another story went around about Eddie. As a soldier, he had engaged in combat numerous times. He’d been brave. Even won a medal. But toward the end of his service, he got into a fight with one of his own men. That’s how Eddie was wounded. No one knew what happened to the other guy. No one asked† (Albom 8). These short glimpses into Eddie’s past interspersed throughout his last moments make the reader wonder what the meaning of these stories are. The way the author uses short, clipped sentences and the repetition of the phrase â€Å"No one† evokes a tone of mystery, arousing the reader’s curiosity in Eddie’s past. What was Eddie like in his childhood, his adolescence, his adulthood? What made him into what he is now? These unanswered questions pester the reader like flies and builds the framework for future revelations about Eddie’s character. The first of these changes seen in Eddie’s character is when Eddie first awakes in heaven, finding himself 75 years in the past, on Ruby Pier, the place that has always been a constant setting throughout his life. He is at the beginning. It is here that Eddie meets his first person in heaven, the Blue Man, who explains the intricacies of the journey Eddie must travel and how he will meet five people in heaven, â€Å"Each of us was in your life for a reason. You may not have known the reason at the time, and that is what heaven is for. For understanding your life on Earth† (Albom 35). Eddie learns that his relationship with the strange man he barely knows was Eddie’s unintentional act that led to the Blue Man’s death. The knowledge that it was his irresponsibility that caused the death of the man sitting in front of him fills him with guilt and sorrow that ultimately deeply affects his identity and character, as seen in the two quotes, â€Å"‘You see? the Blue Man whispered, having finished the story from his point of view. ‘Little Boy? ’ Eddie felt a shiver. ‘Oh no,’ he whispered† (Albom 44), and, â€Å"‘Please, Mister†¦Ã¢â‚¬â„¢ Eddie pleaded. ‘I didn’t know. Believe me†¦God help me, I didn’t know’† (Albom 47). The shock and guilt Eddie feels is profoundly felt by the reader, through words with foreboding connotations like  "whispered† and â€Å"shiver† and by the ellipses and commas between phrases, showing pauses in his speech as he attempts to absorb the impact of the new knowledge. The revelation that he had a hand in murdering another person strongly affects Eddie’s character, making him more paranoid and confrontational, as everything he knew about his life crumbles into a much less desirable image, a trait he holds for the rest of the book. The gruesome relationship between Eddie and his unintended victim affects Eddie’s behavior and attitude in a way that no setting, environment, or event ever could: â€Å"Eddie stepped back. He squared his body as if bracing for a fight†¦Eddie was skeptical. His fists stayed clenched† (Albom 47). The transformation from a weary old man too tired to care about much but the weather to a confrontational man willing to fight for the life he had once known is radical and sudden, and brought about merely through what many would consider a fleeting acquaintance with a man he barely knew. Yet, this apparently minor relationship had a major effect, clearly exemplifying the huge power of a relationship with another individual. The people Eddie meets in heaven do not all affect his character after death, such as the Blue Man, but rather let him and the reader reflect on Eddie’s fluctuating identity in the past. One of these such people was his father: â€Å"The damage done by Eddie’s father was, at the beginning, the damage of neglect† (Albom 104). Eddie was often neglected and abused physically as well as emotionally by his father. This resulted in him always thirsting for approval or affection, two things he would only ever receive in small, taunting tastes from his father: â€Å"And on occasion, as if to feed the weakest embers of a fire, Eddie’s father let a wrinkle of pride crack the veneer of his disinterest† (Albom 106). This virtual torture of Eddie’s emotions as a child and for the rest of his life would forever scar him and breed a habit of coldness between Eddie and his father. The impact on Eddie’s character cut deep. The abusive relationship between him and his father made him into a man that was always searching for his place in the world, always feeling inadequate. Eddie was never content with his lot in life, not with his wife, job, or family: â€Å"He cursed his father for dying and trapping him in the very life he’d been trying to escape† (Albom 128). Of everything that defined Eddie, the relationship with his father was the most influential, a relationship that stemmed from less than opportune circumstances, yet yielded what is perhaps the core of Eddie’s character. After reading The Five People You Meet in Heaven, it becomes obvious to the reader that changes in an individual are direct results of relationships and connections between individuals. Many things can grow to define a person’s self: war, hunger, death, time. Yet none of these can compare with the soft words of a parent or the pleading of an enemy soldier on the battlefield or the trust held between friends. One realizes, as Eddie did, that every individual is just a strand in a web, a drop in a pool of water, and when one strand is plucked or the surface disturbed, the ripple is felt by those closest. Albom, Mitch. The Five People You Meet in Heaven. New York: Hyperion, 2003. Print.

Sunday, April 12, 2020

Battle of Ashdown in the Viking-Saxon Wars

Battle of Ashdown in the Viking-Saxon Wars Battle of Ashdown - Conflict Date: The Battle of Ashdown was fought January 8, 871, and was part of the Viking-Saxon Wars. Armies Commanders: Saxons Prince Alfred of Wessexapprox. 1,000 men Danes King BagsecgKing Halfdan Ragnarssonapprox. 800 men Battle of Ashdown - Background: In 870, the Danes embarked on an invasion of the Saxon kingdom of Wessex. Having conquered East Anglia in 865, they sailed up the Thames and came ashore at Maidenhead. Moving inland, they swiftly captured the Royal Villa at Reading and began fortifying the site as their base. As work progressed, the Danish commanders, Kings Bagsecg and Halfdan Ragnarsson, dispatched raiding parties towards Aldermaston. At Englefield, these raiders were met and defeated by Aethelwulf, the Ealdorman of Berkshire. Reinforced by King Ethelred and Prince Alfred, Aethelwulf and the Saxons were able to force the Danes back to Reading. Battle of Ashdown - The Vikings Strike: Seeking to follow up on Aethelwulfs victory, Ethelred planned an assault on the fortified camp at Reading. Attacking with his army, Ethelred was unable to break through the defenses and was driven from the field by the Danes. Falling back from Reading, the Saxon army escaped from their pursuers in the Whistley marshes and made camp across the Berkshire Downs. Seeing an opportunity to crush the Saxons, Bagsecg and Halfdan rode out from Reading with the bulk of their army and made for the downs. Spotting the Danish advance, 21-year old Prince Alfred, rushed to rally his brothers forces. Riding to the top of Blowingstone Hill (Kingstone Lisle), Alfred made use of an ancient perforated sarsen stone. Known as the Blowing Stone, it was capable of producing a loud, booming sound when blown into correctly. With the signal sent out across the downs, he rode to a hill-fort near Ashdown House to gather his men, while Ethelreds men rallied at nearby Hardwell Camp. Uniting their forces, Ethelred and Alfred learned that the Danes had encamped at nearby Uffington Castle. On the morning of January 8, 871, both forces marched out and formed for battle on the plain of Ashdown. Battle of Ashdown - The Armies Collide: Though both armies were in place, neither appeared eager to open the battle. It was during this lull that Ethelred, against Alfreds wishes, departed the field to attend church services at nearby Aston. Unwilling to return until the service was finished, he left Alfred in command. Assessing the situation, Alfred realized that the Danes had occupied a superior position on higher ground. Seeing that they would have to attack first or be defeated, Alfred ordered the Saxons forward. Charging, the Saxon shield wall collided with the Danes and battle commenced. Clashing near a lone, gnarled thorn tree, the two sides inflicted heavy casualties in the melee that ensued. Among those struck down was Bagsecg as well as five of his earls. With their losses mounting and one of their kings dead, the Danes fled the field and returned to Reading. Battle of Ashdown - Aftermath: While the casualties for the Battle of Ashdown are not known, the chronicles of the day report them as being heavy on both sides. Though an enemy, the body of King Bagsecg was buried at Waylands Smithy with full honors while the bodies of his earls were interred at Seven Barrows near Lambourn. While Ashdown was a triumph for Wessex, the victory proved pyrrhic as the Danes defeated Ethelred and Alfred two weeks later at Basing, then again at Merton. At the latter, Ethelred was mortally wounded and Alfred became king. In 872, after a string of defeats, Alfred made peace with the Danes. Selected Sources Berkshire History: The Legends of King AlfredBattle of AshdownBBC: King Alfred

Tuesday, March 10, 2020

Critical Analysis of Leadership of Steve Jobs Essays

Critical Analysis of Leadership of Steve Jobs Essays Critical Analysis of Leadership of Steve Jobs Paper Critical Analysis of Leadership of Steve Jobs Paper The aim of this work is analytical consideration of leadership style of Mr. Steve Jobs, co-founder and later the Chairman and CEO of Apples Computers Incorporated, a most successful businessman today. The challenge of the times The times are upon us when brilliant management and leadership are confounded. In the times of global technical breakthroughs and revolutionary transformations, as the power of â€Å"know-how† and the say-so of â€Å"vision† have joined their hands in leading organizations across sudden gulfs of learning, discoveries, necessitating multiple leaps of faith – we may boldly conclude: the era of the â€Å"middle-of-the-roaders† has grinded itself to a standing halt. Customers-to-be are on the prowl for something extraordinary in the realm of technical overproduction. implicity and usability compounded with intuitiveness, versatility and durability, and, of course, functionalities flying in the matter of split seconds – are only some of the major concerns of the client today! The other essential concern is the philosophy behind the product, the personality of the company and corporative image. As it has been aptly put: customers are not looking for just a product anymore; they are looking for a destiny. This, as nothing else, would be about the leadership style of the heads of an organization. Steve Jobs’ leadership changed the world As â€Å"everything falls and rises on leadership† (John Maxwell, 2007, P. -2), we may well embark on a critical research of the exemplary leader who, to my mind, would forthwith fill the â€Å"carte blanche† of robust organizational leadership, rising to all of the occasions of today, let alone corporate competitiveness known for its rigor in Information Technologies. With the power of creativity and originality of thought there is no competition. Everybody gains his unique place. That allowed Steve Jobs to announce at a certain time that Microsoft bought into Apple Corporation by purchase of 150 million USD â€Å"non-voting† shares (David Coursey, 2009). To a hissing audience, it was announced that a commonplace view of Apple winning due to Microsoft losing is wrong. The whole pattern of such thinking is wrong. Having denounced the old views, Mr. Jobs assured that if Apple did not perform well enough, it posed a problem to Apple, not somebody else (Justin Hartman, 2007). Isn’t this view capable enough to change the world of business by shifting paradigm from â€Å"dog-eat-dog† view on competition, rivalry and animosity, to the paradigm of innovation, creativity and uniqueness, with an eye towards every company’s unparalleled input? However, many would rather disagree in a dissentient voice: the world of big business is that of a sham friendship. I agree: everybody shapes his perception and philosophy of the world after himself; however not everybody can drastically change the world for better – Steve Jobs’ example certainly did! People who have their own way of creativity will never have â€Å"traffic jams†. Even if they have to make a step back in view of marketing or income rates, they will always come out on top, providing it leads the way to contributing those things which have never been known to the world before. True leadership is about desire for a win-win decision-making. Steve Jobs’ futurity is the key Apple is a $30 billion company with only 30 major products (Carmine Gallo, 2010). In the world around us this is not much of the diversity. Later, Steve Jobs would talk about staying focused, calling for the need of restructuring organizational locus of control from merely staying afloat by diversifying product line to becoming spearheaded towards the future. The Apple Incorporated today As the morrow cares for itself, the question arises, what is the Apple Incorporated today? Apple said its net income in the end of 2010 rose at the rate of 78 percent from a year earlier to a record $6 billion Revenue soared more than 70 percent to $26. 74 billion, from $ 15. 68 billion in 2009 (The New York Times, 2011). Apple Incorporated products are well-known and easily recognizable across the whole world in line of personal computers, iphones, ipods and IPads. As of September 25, 2010, the Company had opened a total of 317 retail stores, including 233 stores in the United States and 84 stores internationally (The New York Times, 2011). Reminiscence of the past With a little reminiscence of the past, the company was founded in 1976 by Steve Jobs and his partner Steve Wozniak only to see Mr. Jobs vacate the premises due to a fall-out with Mr. Sculley in 1985, â€Å"hand-picked CEO, recruited from Pepsi† (Owen W. Linzmayer, 1999). This was an extremely humbling experience, which often shapes leadership providing the mold for them tried with the times of being downcast. As Apple’s product Newton failed under governance of Mr. Sculley, the company could not compare to Microsofts Windows operating system, having become the mainstay of computer standards. Owen W. Linzmayer, 1999, P. 60) In 1997 upon return of Mr. Jobs, 12 years later, the company finally began to see the light at the time when Mr. Dell was building his own computer empire, saying: â€Å"Apples smartest move would be to shut it down and give the money back to the shareholders. † (New York Times, 2001 updated). However, such a stance into future possibilities was not daunting for Mr. Jobs at all. The same goes for any visionary who doesn’t dwell on life retrospectively. Leadership style defined With all being said, it is sufficient to take for granted that leadership style of Mr. Jobs is closely related to innovation and creativity. However, it is necessary to delve down to the fulcrum of his philosophy of life to get an in-depth understanding of this. It has been stated by Steve Jobs: â€Å"Innovation distinguishes between the leader and the follower† (Deutschman, 2001, P. 1-3). In the book â€Å"The Steve Job’s Way† (Jay Elliot, 2011, P. 4), being privy to the early internal affairs of the Apple, Jay Elliot (Apples head of human resources) comments on the key leadership nuances of Mr.  Jobs, saying that Steve has understanding of the very mindset of the people; when he wants to design and create something for himself – it literally means creating something for his prospective customers: â€Å"And because he thinks like his future customers, he knows he has seen the future. † It is a must-have skill for a leader to have a clear vision and know the future without much guesswork; however this visionary capacity takes deep root in a close walk with the contemporaries being wired to the very pith and marrow of trends, knowing what people desire ere they know it themselves. For some all this is a figment of fuzzy imagination; for Steve they are the air he breathes. While it is noted that from 1940s a shift has been made in leadership theories from personal features exhibited in a leader to what leaders practically do (Management and Organisation, 2004), I take it to be a sign for the materialistic touch in development of the Western world. We are no longer as introspective as much as we are focused on the outward. Innate leadership according to theorists who debate the Trait approach, which traces itself back to ancient Greeks, is rather incidental than essential (Management and Organisation, 2004). With modern tendencies of entrepreneurialism our views have taken an outward and libertarian slant. The thinking pattern of our day and time presents itself in the following manner: a person should do his best, everything else is supererogatory; to which I answer that internal world of intentions and reins of the heart are not a mere decoration to the outward doing, but the core essence thereof. While the Trait approach is not a sufficient basis to distinguish between leaders and followers (Management and Organisation, 2004) it is a grand mistake to dismiss it at that. Certainly, we cannot conclude that the backbone of leadership of Steve Jobs was all about attracting more customers, or raking in mega income, or doing something else to be noticed by investors. If we should follow those characters that were so motivated and tried to lead others, we could make but a dent in the myriads of failures in the realm of leadership. In the search for leadership essence we are groping for something ideal in a leader and if the case be – his exploits to zero in on their intrinsic value thereof rather than on the outward appearances. If not so, than every human being is some kind of a leader, good or bad. The limitations of the Trait approach cannot fully account for effectiveness of leaders’ actions (Management and Organisation, 2004). With the behavioral perspective we may single out the successful patterns of behavior of Steve Jobs that led him to prominent leadership position. Indeed, Steve Jobs is a great visionary. It is possible to even state that he is one of the kind. It is the power of envisioning and clarity of purpose which further fosters the focus, or locus of control. One cannot take anybody anywhere unless he has been there to start with. And Mr. Steve has taken his company, his staff, and the rest of the world onto the entirely new plane of things. Would it surprise you to know that Steve Jobs never graduated any college? He started, however did not follow it through. This is the way of the Steve Jobs, eagle-eyed visionary, streamlined for the future, not the past. it is easy to remark that the company’s governance is that of personality-driven type. The company had six CEOs in-between 1977-1985 (Catherine Lee, 2010), alented and skilled managers, some fairly successful. However, only with the passion and zeal of Mr. Jobs, his futurity brought the company successful landslide. Mr. Jobs was not set on fixing what did not work; his zeal did not become a â€Å"fire-stomping mode† of problem-solving. He cared for the new products put out on the market line. Bringing new products, and innovative software and hardware is still the mission statement of the company. Innovation is the key-note peculiarity of Mr. Job’s leadership style! nnovative leadership is opposite to reclining back and resting on one’s laurels, complacent about things the way they are at the market now. Lucas Lin (2009), a renowned expert in the field of leadership and management, wrote that Steve had a gut feeling for innovation, realizing the need to incessantly keep the ball rolling in order to stay on top of things. Innovation was his crystal prism to look through at everything within a business – â€Å"innovation first, everything else later†. Another hallmark of Jobs leadership style, thus, is his ability to combine zeal and fear of his staff, who often state that they are afraid of him. However, fear and zeal will dovetail only when the staff share the same vision and reality perception that head of the company constantly evangelizes. this is the bottom line that ultimately defines success, regardless of the industry or domain. Lucas Lin continues criticizing Jobs on his autocratic leadership: â€Å"Steve Jobs, the CEO and co-founder of Apple is a highly autocratic or ‘CEO-centric’ leader. † (Lucas Lin, 2009). Steve Jobs has founded the leadership style of the Apple Company on fear of his employees as much as on being fanatic about the brand of the company and being extremely radical concerning dedication to the customer. This has brought as much criticism on Steve Jobs as much adoration he enjoys. Several authors describe him as intimidating and a hard-to-please perfectionist: His deadlines are often impossible to meet, but he is constantly moving, ever moving towards improvement in all spheres (Erve, 2004). However, to state that Steve Jobs leadership style is autocratic would be far from the truth. It may be so for ones less passionate for their jobs and products, nonetheless for ones in love with the Company, it would be much different, as night from day. Let’s hear Jobs speak for himself: â€Å"When you hire really good people you have to give them a piece of the business and let them run with it†¦ the reason you’re hiring them is because you’re going to give them the reins. I want [them] making as good or better decisions than I would. † (George Ambler, 2008). Therefore, it is not democratic or autocratic governance style per se that bring effectiveness, rather the ability to switch between both and apply each model as need be. Here is a thorough answer to the question: why Steve Job’s leadership proved to be very effective. no longer can one eclectic leadership pattern bring results. We see in leaders of today the deftness of interchangeability. While the autocratic leadership is explained by high degree of control exerted over followers, making for unwillingness in them to take responsibility due to low level of morale (Management and Organisation, 2004), we see indeed a very high level of control extended by Steve Jobs only to share the rule with the competent, turning over some of the business to ones vested with decision-making powers. That in turn, is democratic leadership pattern in the behavioral perspective (Management and Organisation, 2004).

Sunday, February 23, 2020

SWOT Analysis Is Deeply Flawed and Should Not Be Applied as a Modern Essay

SWOT Analysis Is Deeply Flawed and Should Not Be Applied as a Modern Marketing Tool - Essay Example This analysis is mainly used in strategic management where that organization aimed at having a competitive advantage from its competitors and it is continuously reviewed. SWOT analysis has been upheld by many organizations, its benefits explored and also its weakness criticized (Evans, and Wright, 2009, p. 10). It is in this bid that this paper will be committed to discussing the thesis statement: SWOT analysis is deeply flawed and should not be applied as a modern marketing tool. Figure 1 The Inherent Weaknesses of SWOT Analysis To begin with, SWOT analysis is flawed as a marketing tool since it does not provide with all the information that is required by managers for strategic planning. From the face value, SWOT analysis is perceived by many people as an easy process. This is since all that a business is expected to do is implement the four quadrant SWOT analysis in the business. This is where the business capitalizes on its opportunities and strengths while mitigating its weaknes ses and threats. However, this is not easy and critical information necessary for making marketing decisions is overlooked by the SWOT analysis. It is flawed since it does not separate this information from the pivotal information that the organization needs to embark on immediately and the peripheral information that can be addressed. This translates to misplaced priorities as the marketing team will be more focused in exploiting the opportunities yet there are some threats that if not dealt with immediately will translate to massive losses. Moreover, as pertains to the SWOT analysis, it does not provide a guideline that shows which customer base is the most attractive, which strategy is the most powerful. Lack of guidelines as pertains to the results obtained from carrying out a SWOT analysis makes it flawed and hence should not be applied as a modern marketing tool (Valentin, 2001, p. 58). Subsequently, SWOT analysis is deeply flawed and should not be used as a marketing tool sin ce it is a checklist to evaluate the performance of the strengths and weaknesses identified upon carrying out a SWOT analysis. This is evidenced with an illustration of an example of a strength that has been identified by a business upon carrying out a SWOT analysis as a marketing tool. A business has identified its leadership in market share as strength for the benefit of the organization. On face value, this looks productive since positive correlations have been documented to exist between leadership in market share and the profitability of the organization. The business consequently surges forward to exploit the strength, without bearing in mind the minute details of leadership in market share leadership that may affect the performance of the business. The organization by relying on the SWOT analysis fails to assess if leadership in market share is relevant to the organization and if the investment made by the organization is feasible. Use of checklist in SWOT analysis makes it a flawed marketing tool due to lack of leverage of the decisions made and hence not a good modern marketing tool (Kotler, 2000, p. 78). Moreover, SWOT analysis is deeply flawed and should not be used as a marketing since it has been described as being vague and simplistic. This is evidenced